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Tutaj jesteś: Główna Sites – Gródek

Gródek - archaeological site PDF Print E-mail
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Sunday, 04 July 2010 03:54

GRÓDEK, Hrubieszów commune

Gródek on the Bug is the most attractive archaeological cluster in the Lublin region. About 50 sites, including a group of several settlements and cemeteries situated by the fort (known as the Castle, Old-Ruthenian Volyn), were discovered here. The other sites represent the prehistoric period, from the Stone Age to the Late Middle Ages. Most of the archaeological evidence came to us from a loess inselberg stretching for 1.5 kilometres along the Bug valley, where the Huczwa flows into the Bug. It was here that the first excavations in the Lublin region were conducted by Zorjan Dołęga-Chodakowski in 1817. The works surrendered a fascinating wealth of archaeological materials. Artefacts included: flint tools, e.g. axes, chisels, flint blades; stone axes; ornaments and militaria from the Bronze Age, such as fibulae, clasps, beads, Roman imports; enkolpions, crosses, stone and clay icons, clay painted eggs, militaria from the Early Middle Ages and coins from different periods.

Principal among these were: a vessel of the Linear Band Pottery Culture, most probably filled with ochre (5000 BC); a cremation cemetery of the Lusatian culture from the fourth period of the Bronze Age where 84 urn graves were examined; a settlement of the Lublin-Volhynia Culture of Painted Pottery with a defensive ditch for the protection of cattle, and cemeteries with clusters of graves (eleven of them were recorded). It was in this settlement that the oldest copper finds in the Lublin region were discovered. Other finds include: the largest settlement of the Funnel Beaker Culture, with dozens of deep, bell-shaped pits used to store grains (one of them contained forty vessels), huts with rubble of pugging covering the walls (with cornices modelled in clay), relics of clay floors and a large number of articles made of Świeciechów and Volhynian flint. With the culture are also associated: traces of cannibalism, Poland’s oldest image of a horse in the form of schematic engravings on a vessel, the oldest bone spoon, the oldest glue in the Lublin region (used to fasten bone arrowheads) and the oldest weaving workshop. A cemetery of the Strzyżów culture from the Early Bronze Age was also examined here.

The Goths also established a bi-ritual cemetery here – the largest in the circle of Gothic cultures. Only 226 graves were explored archaeologically; three circles forming them raise no doubts as to their origin. Among other finds were: a Sarmatian niche grave, the grave of a dog, turtles in graves and graves disturbed during ritual rites. The most important artefacts included: coral beads, a nickel ossel, tin-plated fibulae and a terra sigillata vessel from Asia Minor. The remains of a mercantile settlement adjacent to the cemetery, containing many Roman imports, also proved interesting.

Last Updated on Friday, 02 March 2012 14:18

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